NOAA Sea Grant announces the award of $9.3 million in grants for 32 projects to advance the development of a sustainable marine and coastal aquaculture industry in the U.S.
The grants were awarded through two aquaculture funding competitions–Integrated Projects to Increase Aquaculture Production and Addressing Impediments to Aquaculture Opportunities–to help spur the development and growth of shellfish, finfish and seaweed aquaculture businesses. The projects include basic and applied research to improve efficient production of seafood, permitting of new businesses, management of environmental health issues and economic success of aquaculture businesses.
All projects include public-private partnerships and will be led by university-based Sea Grant programs. With each project, every two federal dollars of funding is matched by non-federal funds, bringing the total investment in these research projects to $13.9 million.
Sea Grant’s investment in aquaculture research, outreach and education programs continues to produce results for coastal communities and their economies. Between February 2016 and January 2017, Sea Grant invested $9 million in aquaculture research, technology transfer, and outreach and reported $90 million in economic impacts, including support of 900 businesses and 1,800 jobs.
Integrated Projects to Increase Aquaculture Production in the U.S. – Project Summaries
80 proposals requested $52,305,189 in federal grant funds, 11 projects were funded with $6,662,532 federal grant funds
Expanding Marine Aquaculture in the U.S.: Technology for Commercial Scale Hatchery and Nursery Production of High Value Marine Fish Seedstock
Florida Sea Grant, University of Miami
Project type:aquaculture research, information/technology transfer
Summary: This project will advance hatchery and nursery technology for captive spawning and production of a high-value reef fish complex involving red snapper, Nassau grouper, and hogfish. The project team aims at being in commercial production of at least one of these three economically and ecologically important species within three years of the project start date. More information about the type of work that will be included in this project is available via this You Tube video.
Background: Global population and demand for seafood is steadily rising. However, many wild fisheries are being harvested at or above maximum sustainable yield. While many countries have embraced the “blue revolution” the U.S. lags behind in many ways. Development of marine finfish seedstock sources is critical to support the growth of marine aquaculture.
Velella Epsilon: Pioneering Offshore Aquaculture In The Southeastern Gulf of Mexico
Florida Sea Grant, University of Florida
Project type: Permitting support, aquaculture education
Summary: This project will deploy and operate a single, small-scale demonstration fish net pen (Velella Epsilon) as an educational platform for policymakers, the public, and fishing industry interests while concurrently pursuing an application for a commercial aquaculture permit in the Gulf of Mexico waters off southwest Florida and documenting the process for future applicants to follow (Manual for Aquaculture Permitting Pathway, or MAPP).
Background: The United States (U.S) has the largest EEZ on the planet, yet America is still the biggest importer of seafood in the world (by dollar value: FAO, 2016). The U.S. already experiences a seafood trade deficit of approximately $14 billion (Shanker 2016). Only 20% of current U.S. seafood consumption is met by domestic aquaculture (NOAA, 2017). As seafood demand from Asia increases further, with growing affluence in China and other countries, America’s ability to compete in the international seafood market – and our ability to provide healthful marine protein to U.S. consumers – will be increasingly constrained. America therefore is in urgent need of more aquaculture. The Sea Grant 2017 aquaculture initiative recognizes this imperative to support integrated projects to increase aquaculture production (ocean, coastal, or Great Lakes species).
Partners: Kampachi Farms, University of Miami
Sustainable Post-harvest Processing and Value-addition of Aquaculture Seaweed
Maine Sea Grant, University of Maine
Project type: Aquaculture research, food safety, technology transfer, technical assistance
Summary: This project will develop an industry-university collaborative to address a major barrier to the development of seaweed aquaculture–post-harvesting processing technology and development of value-added products. The focus will be on developing systems for post-harvest processing of seaweed and studying the quality, safety and consumer acceptability of the products. The project team will transfer the technologies developed and providing training to the producers and processors of seaweeds in New England and the Pacific Northwest.
Background: Interest in seaweed aquaculture is increasing in the United States for many reasons, including (i) an alternate source of nutritious food free from applied fertilizers/chemicals (Rhatigan, 2009; Holdt & Kraan, 2011), (ii) feed for aquaculture of seafood (i.e. fish, urchins and mollusks) (Rosen et al., 2000; Demetropoulos & Langdon, 2004; Daggett et al., 2005), and (iii) for production of biofuel (Kraan, 2010; Adams et al., 2011). However, there are no systematic studies on post-harvest processing or technology for developing food products and value-addition of seaweed.
Partners: University of Maine, Maine Coast Sea Vegetables; Sarah Redmond LLC, Maine Sea Farms, Ocean’s Balance
Large-scale culture methods for Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, seed production in Maine and the Northeast: Experimental Laboratory & Field Trials
Maine Sea Grant, Downeast Institute for Applied Marine Research
Project type: aquaculture research, knowledge transfer
Summary: This project seeks to examine methods to expand production of cultured blue mussels in Maine and the Northeast U.S. by addressing seed production, the primary factor limiting U.S. aquaculture production:. Specifically, the investigators will focus on methods to improve hatchery production of blue mussel juveniles (spat) that will enable production of reliable seed to growers who, until now, rely on the vagaries of capturing wild seed that is known to be highly variable both spatially and temporally (Le Corre et al., 2013; Morello & Yund, 2016).
Background: Demand for mussels in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic is higher than supply. In 2015, 9 million pounds of live mussels were imported from Canadian aquaculture farms (i.e., PEI) into this region of the U.S, close to 50% of the domestic live mussel market. Over the next fifteen years, the total live U.S. marketplace is projected to expand modestly to approximately 80 million live pounds (an increase from 2015 ofca. 33%), and, without significant change in domestic production, much of that increase will be imported from mussel farms in Canada.
Partners:Aquaculture Development Services, Inc., Aqualine LLC, Blue Hill Bay Mussels, Calendar Island Mussel Company, Moosabec Mussel Inc.
Commercializing intensive copepod culture: A transformational foundation essential for increasing domestic production of high-value marine finfish
Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant, The University of Southern Mississippi
Project type: Aquaculture research, technology transfer
Summary: Scientists will optimize production systems and culture parameters to facilitate and implement copepod mass production at the producer level. To do this, scientists will: integrate knowledge of copepod life history parameters and responses to environmental variables to produce stable production models; optimize copepod diets/nutrition and the use of both live algae and commercially-available algal concentrates to support enhanced survival and reproduction; optimize the microbial environment of culture systems to facilitate optimal production; develop directed breeding to establish selected domesticated lines that thrive in the culture environments; conduct rearing trials to demonstrate the feasibility of the production protocols/models; perform economic analyses to demonstrate the economic viability of copepod culture; and conduct outreach to disseminate project results to stakeholders.
Background: Copepod nauplii are the natural prey items for most larval fish. They are generally smaller and more nutritionally complete than rotifers and Artemia, so marine fish larvae are more likely to ingest them. Mass culture of copepods for commercial aquaculture has been limited because of the high cost and inconsistency of production, as well as their limited storage and transport ability. Most high-value, emergent commercial marine species require, or significantly benefit from the incorporation of copepod nauplii as a first live feed in the hatchery.
Partners: Virginia Tech, University of Florida, Reed Mariculture, Inc.
Enhancing Peer to Peer Learning Opportunities for Southern Oyster Farmers
Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant, Auburn University
Project type: Technology transfer, Business support
Summary: Grant funds will assist oyster farmers and business owners with travel costs to attend the annual Oyster South Symposium and other oyster farms for learning opportunities and information exchange. Funds will also assist them in attending industry-focused workshops, meetings and tradeshows.
Background: Many oyster aquaculture businesses are new. For example, all 15 of Alabama’s oyster aquaculture businesses have been established since 2009. The individuals engaged in commercial oyster farming in the region are vulnerable to the same miscalculations and lack of experience facing beginning farmers in any field. Dissemination of knowledge, especially among peers, is a key limiting factor among business owner-farmers in the oyster aquaculture field. This project will use a combination of a highly informative Oyster South Symposium and the Sea Grant aquaculture extension network to facilitate peer-to-peer knowledge sharing among oyster farmers.
Partners: Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, Oyster South Co., LLC, North Carolina Sea Grant, South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, University of Georgia Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant, University of Florida, Mississippi Department of Marine Resources, Louisiana Sea Grant, Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi
Real-time detection of Vibrio for oyster aquaculture
MIT Sea Grant, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Project type: Technology development
Summary: We will create a sensor that can detect the presence of Vibrio bacteria in a pathogenic state. Vibrio can limit oyster production, and this sensor will allow for better management of hatchery production, allow farmers to manage production techniques to limit Vibrio blooms, and to also manage harvests pre- and post- bed closure. This sensor can be used down the value chain to wholesalers and retailers for a quick, real time assessment of oyster safety, and also for researchers seeking to understand Vibrio blooms. This sensor will be a demonstration project in our program to develop new tools to improve aquaculture production beginning with a NE regional focus, but ultimately applicable to production nationally and globally.
Background: One of the greatest impediments to aquaculture production is disease. Diseases caused by vibrios limit the potential for aquaculture production in a myriad of species including but not limited to oysters and shrimp. Vibrios are a major pathogenic concern beyond aquaculture as they are directly implicated in the loss of human life. The challenge of vibrios to aquaculture is that Vibrio species are ubiquitous and at low abundance in marine environments. Being able to detect vibrios as they become pathogenic will help ensure the safety of aquaculture products as well as allow better research and management of aquaculture operations.
Partners: University of Massachusetts, Boston
Improved delivery of water-soluble nutrients to marine fish larvae to promote expansion of US commercial aquaculture
Oregon Sea Grant, Oregon State University
Project type: Aquaculture research, technology transfer
Summary: Investigators will build on promising preliminary research results with this project. Specifically, research goals of this project include 1) testing the effectiveness of liposome-enrichment of live prey for several marine fish species of potential high commercial value and 2) developing large-scale methods of production and an economic model to support commercialization of liposome technology so that it can be potentially implemented within the 2-4 year time frame requested by this funding opportunity.
Background: One of the major barriers in marine finfish aquaculture is poor larval survival that is largely due to poor nutrition and difficulties in nutrient delivery. Specifically, water-soluble nutrients are challenging to deliver to marine fish larvae because they are rapidly leached from commercial-type micro diets microdiets and are not easily manipulated in live feeds, such as rotifers and Artemia. We have developed microparticles (liposomes) that effectively retain water-soluble nutrients and we have used liposomes to enrich live prey with taurine to achieve concentrations found in copepods – the natural live prey.
Partners: Hubbs SeaWorld Research Institute, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Reed Mariculture Inc
Enhancing Commercial Sustainability in the Hatchery Production of Eastern Oysters and Clams
Virginia Sea Grant, Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Project type: aquaculture research, technology/information transfer
Summary: The objective of this work will be to identify technical or biological strategies that can be rapidly implemented by industry to support healthy hatchery microbiomes and optimize larval growth and survival. In collaboration with commercial entities, the project team will analyze microbiomes, carbonate chemistry, and harmful algal blooms (HABs) to determine effects of routine hatchery water clean-up methods on several components of the growing system. Outreach activities will include workshops on water quality and microbiome management for the Virginia aquaculture community, hatchery forums to be conducted in association with national conferences, and distribution of protocols to the pathology community for detection of pathogenic bacteria in hatchery systems, that would empower pathology laboratories to better serve industry in this key area.
Background: Shellfish hatcheries of the East and Gulf Coasts have been plagued by limitations to production in recent years, the causes of which are unclear. While HABs and altered carbonate chemistry have received prominent research attention, evidence that either of these contributes materially to hatchery production limitation remains scarce. Emerging evidence has suggested that the production problems are microbial in nature, which prompted the wider exploration of the influence of hatchery water clean-up strategies as well as carbonate chemistry and HABs on hatchery microbiomes and oyster and clam larval health.
Partners: Cherrystone Aquafarms; Oyster Seed Holdings, Ward Oyster Company, JC Walker Brothers, KCB Oyster Holdings, Auburn University, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Horn Point Laboratory
Pilot-scale grow out of sablefish (“black cod”) by the Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe
Washington Sea Grant, University of Washington
Project type: Aquaculture research
Summary: 10,000 sablefish (Anopoploma fimbria) juveniles will be transferred to experimental pens at the NOAA Manchester Research Station (Port Orchard, WA) and will be grown in a pilot-scale project for two years to harvest size (~2.5 kg) by Jamestown S’Klallam tribal personnel working in conjunction with NOAA Manchester researchers. Production performance will be assessed by overall growth, growth rate and feed conversion. Funds derived from the sale of the sablefish will be put into a fund that will be used in the future for continuing net pen growout of sablefish at tribal sites.
Background: Wild sablefish populations are currently stable and the capture fisheries are highly controlled. Current population levels are lower relative to historic ones and harvests are not expected to increase. As a result, the wild product is limited and is one of the factors driving aquaculture of the species. Domestically, sablefish can be found in fillet forms often for prices ranging from $25 to $30 per pound. Economic analyses of the sablefish market have demonstrated that, while aquaculture may affect prices over time, both aquaculture and commercial fishing can coexist and be successful because of the high value of this fish (Huppert and Best, 2004). In addition, it appears that new markets for this fish (e.g., Korea, United Arab Emirates, Singapore) will only result in an increased demand for sablefish in the future.
Partners: Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe, Jamestown Point Whitney Venture LLC, NOAA Manchester Research Facility, Rensel Associates Aquatic Sciences
Increasing Northeast US Marine Aquaculture Production by Pre-permitting Federal Ocean Space
Woods Hole Sea Grant, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Project type: Permitting assistance
Summary: The project team will work with federal and state agencies to identify promising areas of federal waters off the coast of New England and then pre-permit these areas for broad categories of marine aquaculture, including longline and on-bottom shellfish culture and large-scale kelp culture with a focus on native species and low-impact growout technologies identified as particularly promising by the Massachusetts Aquaculture Association. They will establish a mechanism for current and prospective aquaculture operators to qualify to use portions of these pre-permitted areas for farming operations, and transition that mechanism entirely to NOAA Fisheries Office of Aquaculture (or another appropriate agency) at the conclusion of the project.
Background: Marine aquaculture production in the US lags behind that of other major seafood producing countries. One of the most frequently cited reasons for this is the complexity and cost of the process for obtaining permits to farm seafood in US waters. Obtaining a permit to farm seafood in federal waters requires an extensive process of review and consultation with several agencies.
Partners: Massachusetts Aquaculture Association
Addressing Impediments to Aquaculture Opportunities – Project Summaries
46 proposals requested $6,176,165 in federal grant funds, 21 projects were funded with $2,631,005 federal grant funds
Assisting Alaska Shellfish Managers to Avoid Emergency Rainfall Closures,
Alaska Sea Grant, $94,535
Summary: This proposal seeks solutions to increasingly problematic fecal coliform levels in remote shellfish growing areas, building on continuing discussion between ADEC, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration, and shellfish farmers. The overarching goals of the research are to: 1) Better understand the overlapping effects of rainfall events and associated freshwater outflows on fecal bacteria levels on shellfish farms and geoduck harvest areas; and 2) Apply approved NSSP laboratory tests, in conjunction with comparative analyses of a real-time tool to predict elevated numbers of fecal bacteria.
Geoduck spawning, nursery techniques, seed security and technology transfer for Alaska,
Alaska Sea Grant, $149,974
Summary: This project will provide Alaska geoduck farmers with Native Alaska geoduck seed to provide farmers with access to seed to grow and expand their farms. Broodstock for the hatcheries will be provided by Alaskan divers. The spawning and nursery project will take place on land based facilities that will not impact the environment. The seed produced will be planted by farm sites that have already been approved by the State of Alaska.
Mariculture Map – Development of a GIS Tool to Inform Mariculture Expansion,
Alaska Sea Grant, $139,503
Summary: Development of mariculture in Alaska has been restricted to date by a lack of information needed to assess the profitability of mariculture investments, which depends upon key environmental and social variables. This project will define and prioritize parameters important to mariculture development, identify existing data sets related to these parameters, and collect, analyze/process and layer existing data into a GIS tool which can be used by investors and regulators to better inform and focus investment in mariculture development in Alaska.
Impediments and opportunities for coordinating use of California’s coastal ocean: Adding aquaculture to the mix,
California Sea Grant, $98,470
Summary: Many offshore aquaculture proposals in coastal US waters have faced impediments related to potential or real conflict with multiple uses, most notably existing commercial and recreational fishing activities.The goal of this project is to improve the process for considering and integrating multiple uses of ocean space, specifically capture fisheries and aquaculture.
Solving impediments to the co-culture of seaweeds and shellfish,
California Sea Grant, $145,834
Summary: This project addresses an additional impediment to developing integrated shellfish-seaweed culture as a means to ensure sustainable aquaculture productivity into the future, namely through the design of integrated land-based systems themselves, including tests of the optimal recirculation rate to maximize the pH buffering (for shellfish) and nutrient subsidy (for seaweeds) benefits of integrated culture.
Information Transfer about shellfish hatchery operations: an extension project targeting small family-based hatchery farms in Florida,
Florida Sea Grant, $22,639
Summary: This proposal is an extension project for training and information transfer. The goal is to establish an extension program to transfer knowledge about the shellfish hatchery operation and managements to local shellfish hatchery farmers for better practice to increase seed production.
Alternative business and farming models to advance shellfish aquaculture in Hawai`i,
Hawai’i Sea Grant, $149,972
Summary: The overall goal is to conduct research, training and extension activities to develop new opportunities in shellfish farming for Hawaii and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands. Current obstacles to further expansion of shellfish farming include limited access to growing areas, few land-based systems and high barriers to entry for individuals and small businesses. This initiative will include testing a land-based oyster “fattening” system and developing the first commercial shellfish farm in nearshore waters in Hawaii.
Fulfilling Gulf of Mexico’s Regional Tetraploid Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Breeding Program,
Louisiana Sea Grant, $87,639
Summary: There are two main objectives for this tetraploid breeding program: 1) the maintenance, expansion, and distribution of a production tetraploid population, meaning a population whose primary function is creating commercial triploids and 2) improve tetraploids so that value is added to their triploid progeny.
Controlling Fouling and Pests Associated with Water Column Oyster Aquaculture,
Maryland Sea Grant, $149,067
Summary: This study examines factors associated with fouling communities typically associated with contained gear used for oyster culture in Maryland, determines conditions associated with colonization and expansion of the populations and determines cost-effective control methods to be used by commercial operators. Being able to reduce overall labor costs by implementing defined protocols, while performing normal oyster husbandry practices will reduce labor associated with cleaning oysters before shipping to market.
Establishing Shellfish Hatchery Biosecurity Certification Standards to Facilitate Interstate Transport of Shellfish Seed,
New Jersey Sea Grant, $149,219
Summary: This project seeks to fulfill five objectives, including 1) host a three-day workshop that convenes the existing Hatchery Certification Working Group established with prior Sea Grant funding to visit operational shellfish hatcheries of varying size and design to enable the group to overcome its own internal impediments and reach consensus on an initial shellfish hatchery certification protocol; 2) finalize a set of guidelines that are adaptable to varying situations geographically or temporally and responsive to varying levels of acceptable risk; 3) initiate certification of one or more hatcheries; and 5) refine and disseminate progress and results.
Securing the Future of Seafood through Industry and Education: Fish to dish collaborative internship program,
New York Sea Grant, $103,593
Summary: This project aims to foster relationships between the seafood and aquaculture industry and a new generation of seafood professionals and to provide the skillsets and knowledge needed to support the industry now and in the future. To accomplish this, the project team will host an internship program with students stationed in different parts of the industry and provide weekly trainings and interaction among students to educate them on all aspects of the industry.
Improving the Safety of Shellfish Consumption with Probiotic-Supplemented Depuration and Improved,
Oregon Sea Grant, $149,988
Summary: For this project, previously identified probiotics will be combined with depuration to eliminate V. parahaemolyticus from oyster tissues without physically damaging the animal. In addition, the project team will develop a diagnostic tool that can detect a toxin released by V. parahaemolyticus or the bacterium itself in oyster tissue samples that is simpler to operate, more cost-effective, and faster than current detection methods. The technologies developed during this project will support the growth of the oyster industry by providing new tools that ensure product safety and consumer health.
Overcoming Impediments to Shellfish Aquaculture through Legal Research and Outreach,
Sea Grant Law Center, $140,000
Summary: Legal and permitting issues are consistently ranked as a critical impediment to domestic aquaculture development. The regulatory landscape facing the aquaculture industry can also be confusing and complicated, and so this project takes a multi-institutional, national collaboration approach to examine impediments to shellfish aquaculture across the United States.
Fostering Aquaculture Entrepreneurship and Industry Growth in South Carolina through Enhancement of the Aquaculture Permitting Process,
South Carolina Sea Grant, $40,250
Summary: The policy and regulatory framework for marine aquaculture remains fragmented, complex and time-consuming to aquaculture producers who must navigate their state’s own unique legal, political and economic climate for aquaculture. The proposed project would support production and publication of a contemporary version of “A Guide to Aquaculture Permitting in South Carolina,” which was originally produced by the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium in 1984. Once updated, the guide will (1) reduce/eliminate confusion by prospective aquaculturists in navigating through the regulatory and permitting process, resulting in a savings of time and money, (2) provide consistent messaging regarding permitting requirements for various forms of aquaculture, and (3) improve efficiency in the filing of paperwork by the industry and the processing of permits by the agencies.
Addressing Public Misperceptions about Marine Aquaculture in the U.S.,
USC Sea Grant, $147,737
Summary: This collaborative project is being led by the Aquarium of the Pacific’s Seafood for the Future program and includes partnerships with California Sea Grant, the NOAA Office of Aquaculture, NOAA Fisheries, NOAA National Ocean Service, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Seafood Nutrition Partnership. A series of five short videos will be produced to increase the public’s knowledge about the many types aquaculture production, show science-based applications used by aquaculture farms, and familiarize audiences with how to cook aquaculture seafood dishes.
Can carryover effects improve oyster aquaculture production?,
Virginia Sea Grant, $149,998
Summary: Wild Eastern oyster populations in the Chesapeake Bay are significantly diminished, but the development of the triploid oyster in the early 2000s started a revival of the oyster economy. This project will provide a better understanding of the connection between hatchery conditions and grow-out performance, which supports optimization of commercial production and development of adaptive management tools for anticipating challenges of future environmental change.
Identifying strategies to minimize impacts of harmful algal blooms on performance and survival of triploid oysters Cultured in Lower Chesapeake Bay,
Virginia Sea Grant, $149,902
Summary: Oysters represent the most rapidly developing sector of Virginia’s aquaculture industry, but some aquaculturists in the region have observed high mortality of oysters, particularly of smaller spat or seed oysters in upwellers and at grow-out sites in the field, during heavy summer algae blooms. This two-year study will examine the interactive impacts of 1) field exposure of oysters to the harmful algal bloom organisms that bloom in lower Chesapeake Bay during the late summer, 2) the differing standard industry oyster grow-out strategies, and 3) associated physico-chemical stressors (DO, temperature) on performance and survival of farmed oysters during grow-out in lower Chesapeake Bay.
Genetic, physiologic, and culture characterization of new Mercenaria mercenaria breeding stocks,
Virginia Sea Grant, $149,650
Summary: The Eastern Shore of Virginia, with farm sales estimated at $32.3 million dollars in 2015, is leading the nation in clam production. The present success of the industry is reaching a saturation point in Virginia as suitable habitat is constrained by environmental conditions in which cultured broodstock can be raised. This work would establish new broodstock lines from wild populations living at the extremes of the natural range of M. mercenaria.
Development of Genetic Risk Assessment Tools and Management Strategy Evaluation for Aquaculture of Native Shellfish,
Washington Sea Grant, $149,530
Summary: Native shellfish aquaculture is an increasing interest of both industry and management, because it avoids the risk of introducing invasive species and allows diversification of the aquaculture industry. Interbreeding captive and wild shellfish pose potential genetic risks to wild populations, and so this project addresses the uncertainty in the development and implementation of regulatory guidelines governing shellfish aquaculture operations to avoid these risks.
Growing Sustainable Shellfish: Understanding the Ecological Role of Shellfish Aquaculture Using Emerging Technology,
Washington Sea Grant, $149,995
Summary: This project addresses two major barriers to sustainable growth of shellfish aquaculture in Washington – public perception and permitting – by researching the functional role of shellfish aquaculture habitat relative to natural habitat.
Market Development to Diversify Shellfish Aquaculture Products in Massachusetts,
Woods Hole Sea Grant, $113,510
Summary: This project will support aquaculture of three native, coastal species in Massachusetts; surf clams (Spisula solidissima), blood arks (Anadara ovalis) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica). The goals of this project are to increase opportunities for growers to culture and sell new products, and to increase the diversification and profitability of shellfish aquaculture businesses in Massachusetts.